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arXiv (pronounced "archive"—the X represents the Greek letter chi [χ])[1] is an open-access repository of electronic preprints and postprints (known as e-prints) approved for posting after moderation, but not peer review. It consists of scientific papers in the fields of mathematics, physics, astronomy, electrical engineering, computer science, quantitative biology, statistics, mathematical finance and economics, which can be accessed online. In many fields of mathematics and physics, almost all scientific papers are self-archived on the arXiv repository before publication in a peer-reviewed journal. Some publishers also grant permission for authors to archive the peer-reviewed postprint. Begun on August 14, 1991, passed the half-million-article milestone on October 3, 2008,[2][3] and had hit a million by the end of 2014.[4][5] As of April 2021, the submission rate is about 16,000 articles per month